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HYPERURICEMIA AND GOUT

Excess of uric acid in the blood is called hyperuricemia. Uric acid is a nitrogenous waste, excrete through urine mainly in lower vertebrates i.e birds. As uric acid is present in small quantity in human urine, its increased amount in urine indicates some pathological conditions like renal calculi, gout etc in the body. While gout…

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BREAST CANCER

Breast is  the common site of the cancer and other pathological conditions like inflammation and abscess formation in women. Breast cancer occurs when some breast cells start growing abnormally and divide more rapidly than healthy cells, results in formation of a lump or mass. BREAST CANCER METASTASES: A huge percentage of breast cancers occurs in…

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TYPES OF HEADACHE

Headache is a very common condition which results pain and discomfort in the head. In routine life almost everyone is familiar of it. Headache may occur on one side of the head or both sides. It  is mainly divided into two broad categories. These are Primary headaches Secondary headaches PRIMARY HEADACHES: In primary headaches, there…

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EXAMINATION OF A SWELLING

Swelling is an abnormal enlargement of an area of the body. The possible cause of swelling is collection of body fluid in the tissues. It is actually body’s reaction to an injury. A swelling may contains blood, pus and acute inflammatory cells. While examining a swelling, one should look for the following signs. Look for…

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OSTEOPOROSIS AND OSTEOMALACIA

Before going to the detailed differences, the simple most and trade mark difference is that osteoporosis is always QUANTITATIVE disorder while osteomalacia is always QUALITATIVE. Osteoporosis is quantitatively inadequate bone mass, while osteomalacia is qualitatively inadequate mineralization. OSTEOPOROSIS: It is a disorder of loss in bone mass, generally seen in elder people especially in women…

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GAMEKEEPER’S THUMB

Gamekeeper’s thumb (skier’s thumb) is an injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the first metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. Mainly caused by repetitive stress on the thumb during routine activities. The term Skier’s thumb is mainly used in a condition when there is an acute, forceful abduction of the thumb. ANATOMY OF THE…

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TREATMENT OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

A fertilized egg can’t develop physiologically outside the uterus. The ectopic tissue must need removal, as they may lead to life-threating consequences. Treatment options are classified as; Expectant management Medication Surgery EXPECTANT MANAGEMENT; If the patient has mild symptoms and the pregnancy is very small, she may need only monitored closely, as there is a…

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FAMOUS PATHOGNOMONICS IN PATHOLOGY

Pyloric stenosis-  olive-shaped mass Hyperthyroidism-  exopthalmous Liver cirrhosis-  spider angioma SLE-  butterfly rashes Addison’s disease-  bronze-like skin Leprosy-  Leoninig face(contracted face) Cushing syndrome-  buffalo hump Cholera-  rice watery stool Bulimia nervosa-  chipmunk face Asthma-  wheezing inspiration Hyperpituitarism –  carotenemia + xanthamia Down syndrome-  single crease on palms COPD-  barrel chest, blue boaters, pink puffers Hepatitis-  Icteric sclera(yellowish discoloration) Pneumonia-  greenish rusty sputum Thrombophlebitis-  homan’s sign Pernicious anemia-  beefy red tongue Appendicitis-  rovsing sign…

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10 OF THE STRANGEST MEDICAL CONDITIONS

1.            CIPA (CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHYDROSIS); These people are unable to feel pain, so they injure themselves because of lack of  pain reflexes. They even cannot feel temperature and the need to urinate and defecate. They have disturbed temperature regulatory system because body is unable to sweat so leads to overheating and even…

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