Synonyms: dementia pugilistica    chronic traumatic encephalopathy. CTE.


It is a neurodegenerative condition caused by repeated cerebral concussions (hard blows or collisions)  and is mainly characterized by weak lower extremities, unsteady gait, tremors in hands, slow muscular movements, incoordination in body, confusion, difficulty in speaking language or slurred speech and mental dullness.


Mostly seen in boxers and alcohalics. Also seen in athletes of soccer, rugby, wrestling, ice hockey and basket ball. Also may seen in military personnel.


Minute brain hemorrhages leads to atrophy of various brain sections. Axons are mostly affected, therefore cell to cell signals are greatly interrupted. Tau protein deposition.



Signs and symptoms

Appears 8 to 10 years later because this is a slow process and takes many years to be noticed i.e thinking abilities emotions and behaviors are not easily noticeable.

Short term memory loss, suicidal thoughts, aggressiveness, difficulty in communications, disturbed sense of smell, difficulty in vision and focusing.

Motor impairment i.e muscle weakness, muscles immobility, tremors, walking problems, poor judgement, vertigo, deafness, expolsive behavior etc .

Treatment and prevention

There is no specific treatment although changing the rules in some sports and legal play may be counted as preventive measures.

  • Share post

He is owner of this website. He is MBBS student in Bannu Medical College, Khyber Medical University Pakistan.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *