Medicine & Pharmacology

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HYPERURICEMIA AND GOUT

Excess of uric acid in the blood is called hyperuricemia. Uric acid is a nitrogenous waste, excrete through urine mainly in lower vertebrates i.e birds. As uric acid is present in small quantity in human urine, its increased amount in urine indicates some pathological conditions like renal calculi, gout etc in the body. While gout…

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TYPES OF HEADACHE

Headache is a very common condition which results pain and discomfort in the head. In routine life almost everyone is familiar of it. Headache may occur on one side of the head or both sides. It  is mainly divided into two broad categories. These are Primary headaches Secondary headaches PRIMARY HEADACHES: In primary headaches, there…

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OSTEOPOROSIS AND OSTEOMALACIA

Before going to the detailed differences, the simple most and trade mark difference is that osteoporosis is always QUANTITATIVE disorder while osteomalacia is always QUALITATIVE. Osteoporosis is quantitatively inadequate bone mass, while osteomalacia is qualitatively inadequate mineralization. OSTEOPOROSIS: It is a disorder of loss in bone mass, generally seen in elder people especially in women…

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FAMOUS PATHOGNOMONICS IN PATHOLOGY

Pyloric stenosis-  olive-shaped mass Hyperthyroidism-  exopthalmous Liver cirrhosis-  spider angioma SLE-  butterfly rashes Addison’s disease-  bronze-like skin Leprosy-  Leoninig face(contracted face) Cushing syndrome-  buffalo hump Cholera-  rice watery stool Bulimia nervosa-  chipmunk face Asthma-  wheezing inspiration Hyperpituitarism –  carotenemia + xanthamia Down syndrome-  single crease on palms COPD-  barrel chest, blue boaters, pink puffers Hepatitis-  Icteric sclera(yellowish discoloration) Pneumonia-  greenish rusty sputum Thrombophlebitis-  homan’s sign Pernicious anemia-  beefy red tongue Appendicitis-  rovsing sign…

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