URETERAL STENTS

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Ureteral stents are used for keeping a ureter open, which is already compromised by conditions like kidney stones or some surgical procedures. Sometimes ureteral stents are implanted as a  temporary measure to prevent damage to a blocked kidney, until a permanent procedure is performed to...
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HYPERURICEMIA AND GOUT

Excess of uric acid in the blood is called hyperuricemia. Uric acid is a nitrogenous waste, excrete through urine mainly in lower vertebrates i.e birds. As uric acid is present in small quantity in human urine, its increased amount in urine indicates some pathological conditions...
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BREAST CANCER

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Breast is  the common site of the cancer and other pathological conditions like inflammation and abscess formation in women. Breast cancer occurs when some breast cells start growing abnormally and divide more rapidly than healthy cells, results in formation of a lump or mass. BREAST...
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EXAMINATION OF A SWELLING

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Swelling is an abnormal enlargement of an area of the body. The possible cause of swelling is collection of body fluid in the tissues. It is actually body’s reaction to an injury. A swelling may contains blood, pus and acute inflammatory cells. While examining a...
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GAMEKEEPER’S THUMB

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Gamekeeper’s thumb (skier’s thumb) is an injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the first metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. Mainly caused by repetitive stress on the thumb during routine activities. The term Skier’s thumb is mainly used in a condition when there is...
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TREATMENT OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

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A fertilized egg can’t develop physiologically outside the uterus. The ectopic tissue must need removal, as they may lead to life-threating consequences. Treatment options are classified as; Expectant management Medication Surgery EXPECTANT MANAGEMENT; If the patient has mild symptoms and the pregnancy is very small,...
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HIV, POST EXPOSURE MEASURES

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FIRST AID AFTER ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE TO HIV; The immediate actions after accidental exposure to HIV actually means for reducing contact time between infected fluid and host body tissues. So if someone got injury by infected needle, infected OT instruments and sharps, the management is as...
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FAMOUS PATHOGNOMONICS IN PATHOLOGY

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Pyloric stenosis-  olive-shaped mass Hyperthyroidism-  exopthalmous Liver cirrhosis-  spider angioma SLE-  butterfly rashes Addison’s disease-  bronze-like skin Leprosy-  Leoninig face(contracted face) Cushing syndrome-  buffalo hump Cholera-  rice watery stool Bulimia nervosa-  chipmunk face Asthma-  wheezing inspiration Hyperpituitarism –  carotenemia + xanthamia Down syndrome-  single crease on palms COPD-  barrel chest, blue boaters, pink puffers Hepatitis-  Icteric sclera(yellowish discoloration) Pneumonia-  greenish...
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